||In the area
of Park of Nature Papuk preserved are most important remains
of cultural heritage connected with two historical periods,
prehistoric period and middle age period. The arrangement
of the most important monuments in the Park is visible
from the map.
In prehistoric period of the Early Iron Age, from the 8th
to the 3rd century BC, slopes of the Papuk Mountain and lowlands
were inhabited by warrior tribes. They lived in characteristic
hillfort settlements and graveyards were located in vicinity
of such settlements. The basic burial rite was cremation.
Incinerated remains of the deceased were put in the pottery
urns and buried together with the rest of grave goods (helmets,
cnemidae, spearheads, horse gear). Grave chambers were constructed
of stone and covered with earth mounds (tumuli).
Very important sites of the Early Iron Age Hallstatt Culture
were discovered near the village Kaptol, within the borders
of the Nature Park Papuk. Fourteen burial mounds were excavated
in the period 1965-1971. Recently, a new archaeological project
started with the research of those sites. So far the exploration
included systematic survey of necropolises Čemernica
i Gradci as well as test excavations of the burial mounds
(tumuli) on the necropolis located at the site Gradci.
From the middle-aged architecture in the area of Papuk,
the most represented and most interesting are remains of fortification
buildings distributed on the hills in the entire brim of Papuk.
(see attached map)
Travelling from east towards west, nearby town of Orahovica,
there is the most preserved and most beautiful fortified town,
not only in Slavonia, but in whole of Croatia - Ružica
town. First time it is mentioned as a kings' property
in 1357. Until the Turkish invasion, it changed several owners,
and in 1687 was occupied by Turks. This fort, which is at
the same time a town, court, and a fortress, was built additional
parts for centuries, and it had several towers, castles, and
bastions, partially enriched by the arts' elements of the
In the mountain above Ružica Town, there are remains of
the Old Town, for which some say that is even older then Ružica
Town. The ground-plan of ruinous walls shows the division
of town into four parts, but about its history, nothing is
Going further towards west in the Podravina region of Papuk
brim, above village of Slatinski Drenovac, there are poorly
preserved remains of an old town - Klaka. It is first mentioned
in the records of the deed of gift in 1308, and the history
of town is connected with the history of old town above Voćin.
The remains of the town are placed in the small plateau of
the hardly approachable hill, and are composed of tree round
towers. A wall connected all tree, and especially strong was
the defending wall that is on the place, which is easiest
to approach. The remains can be seen even today.
On the way from Voćin towards area of Požega, nearby the
village Kamenski Vučjak, there is a fort town Kamengrad. It
is also mentioned as a fortress and gentleman's estate, for
the first time in 1421, but it is an opinion that it was build
much earlier, in the beginning of the 13th century. Kamengrad
changed several owners until Turks occupied it in 1539. The
Turks kept there their military crew of 35 troopers and 50
infantry. In the battle of the royal army against the Turks
for liberation, the town was partially destroyed and was uninhabited
for the last 300 years.
The Town is hardly approachable, settled is the large, rather
cone-shaped hill of a sheer sides. The building consisted
of an outside ring, defending wall of irregular shape and
citadels inside the defending walls. Apart from others towns
in the area of Požega, this building was built with far more
building skills and techniques. At the edges of this 15 meters
high structure, the cut slate stone was used. Sandstone was
used for the door-posts, which are preserved until today.
As a binder twine for the stones, the sand mixed with lime
was used. The lime was slaked nearby the building. The techniques
of cutting stones were applied also by the builders of the
monastery Rudina (outside the borders of Park of Nature Papuk)
where the stone-cutters also showed art skills in forming
plastics in the forms of heads. In Kamengrad there was no
found plastic, but so far there were no archaeological exploring
in this locality. Today, Kamengrad is in the phase of natural
destruction caused by the atmospheric influences, plants and
animals that are devastating walls, and the stones that are
falling apart. The town loses its original contours.
North from the today settlement Velika, at the south end
of the hill Lapjak, there are ruins of the smaller fortress
town - Velički grad. The town could have been built in the
13th century. It was owned by the Befekijevci from Velika,
and after arrival of Turks, it become a military fort. The
fortress by its ground-plan composition is far different from
all other buildings in this area. It has elongated pentagon
ground-plan, which is composed of defending tower on the north
side, and the yard from the south side. The entrance into
town is on the east, protected by the freely made wall. The
defending tower has almost triangle ground-plan, whose north
façade looks monumental, like a prow of the boat, and its
edge is well oriented towards the north tempest and winds.
Inside the tower has four floors, and on the two floors there
was a low tile stove in the north corner, what suggests that
this towers were used for living. The last floor was wooden
what is obvious from the position wooden beams in the wall,
and it was used exclusively for defence. Today, Velički grad
is only partially preserved, but still invites admiration
of hikers and climbers because one can reach this town along
the marked mountain path.
Northeast from village Doljanovci, nearby place of Kaptol,
deep in the Papuk mountain, on the mountain-range, there is
a locality of the middle-aged fort called Pogana gradina.
This town consisted of only two defending-towers of a square
ground-plan, and rather large dimensions (10x12 m). This is
a smaller middle-aged fortress, from which one could see the
Kaptol castle, and it was build as other forts in this area.
Today, the remains of this town are hardly seen, and surrounded
by thick bushes.
The mentioned middle-age towns are inside the borders of
Park of Nature Papuk, while nearby there are several other
historical buildings: old Voćin town, archaeological finding
place Rudine (fortified monastery with church of St. Mihovil),
castle in Kaptol, fortified monastery with church of St. Mary
in Kutjevo, monastery of St. Nicolas nearby Orahovica.